The importance of cannabis in pharmacology

This article about Medical Marijuana was published on and updated on November 5, 2019 . Medical facts in this article was checked and article was medically reviewed by our . Author of this checked article is

Cannabis is a term for psychoactive compounds derived from cannabis or hemp plants. Marijuana serve as benefits of medical marijuana to relieve pain

Marijuana is a flowering plant that uses for recreational and medical purposes as medical marijuana.

Marijuana plants contain chemicals that can help treat many diseases and symptoms. As a result, many people argue that it must be legal for medical purposes. More and more states have legalized marijuana for medicinal purposes.

What is Marijuana?

Marijuana is a mixture of dried leaves, stems, flowers and seeds of the hemp plant. Often green, brown or grey.

What is the effect of cannabis?

There are more than 400 chemicals in cannabis. The substances that cause poisoning to consumers are called tetrahydrocannabinol. THC creates a mind-altering effect that evaluates cannabis as a “medicine”.

Poisoning means “poisoning by taking poisonous substances into your body.” This substance can cause an addiction that makes you want to take this medicine, even if it is harmful to you.

Another thing you need to know is that it is not “natural” to burn dry leaves and shoots and breathe smoke in your lungs. Like smoking, smoking can be dangerous for your body.

Marijuana contains another chemical called cannabidiol. This substance is most often associated with the creation of medical benefits. Unlike THC, CBD does not cause a high feeling.

Is marijuana addictive?

Cannabis congestion is an addiction in which a person experiences withdrawal symptoms if they do not take medicine. People who consume cannabis have irritating disorders, mood swings, and sleep disorders. They also experience a decrease in appetite, desire, anxiety. Marijuana addiction occurs when the brain adapts to large amounts of drugs.

Marijuana is a drug such as alcohol, cocaine or ecstasy. And like these other drugs, these drugs can be addictive and have side effects that can be dangerous.

How does cannabis work?

Often, someone will smoke weed to feel the effect. But you can also

  1. cook in food
  2. Use it as part of an oil such as CBD oil
  3. drink with tea

Use other cannabis products for topical or oral use.

Many of the effects of cannabis are short-term, meaning they only last for a short time. Other effects are long-term and may not occur immediately.

How does marijuana affect the brain and nervous system?

What drug impact the brain’s cannabinoid receptors? Some of the most common health effects of cannabis use are:

  • pain
  • Reduces vomiting and nausea
  • faster heart rate by 20-50 beats per minute
  • red eye due to increased blood flow
  • Helps with glaucoma symptoms for a short time
  • Swelling of the existing lung disease such as asthma when someone smokes
  • possible disruption of tumor growth
  • Interventions in fetal development during pregnancy
  • Disorders in brain development among adolescents

Medical marijuana health benefits

When people use it medically, cannabis is often useful for the following purposes:

  • Pain reduction in certain diseases
  • Reduction of inflammation
  • help with glaucoma
  • Reduction in nausea in people undergoing chemotherapy

How cannabis affects psychological health

The most common effects a person might have include:

increased appetite and thirst

Increased or decreased depressive symptoms, depending on the user

Signs of anxiety increase or decrease, depending on the user

impaired judgment, which makes it difficult for people to think clearly

memory problem

release of dopamine, which causes high feelings

Withdrawal symptoms after being used for a long time

delayed stimulus-response

temporary paranoia and hallucinations

Addicted, in some cases

What is THC?

THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is a chemical that is responsible for most of the psychological effects of cannabis.

THC activates the human mind, happiness, movement, thought, concentration, coordination, sensory and temporal perception.

How does THC affect EU systems and behavior?

When someone smokes marijuana, THC floods the EU system. It binds to cannabinoid receptors throughout the brain and body.

Because cannabinoid receptors are present in so many parts of the brain and body, the effects of THC are very different.

This substance slows down one’s reaction time.

It interferes with the ability to remember things that just happened, causes fear, and influences judgment.

THC also affects the part of the brain that makes you feel good. This feeling makes people feel “high”. However, THC can change the way the EU system works in this area of the brain. This substance can cause memory, addiction, and mental health problems.

Chemical components of cannabis

The plant about 421 chemicals, 61 of which are cannabinoids. More than 2,000 compounds are obtained by pyrolysis during smoking cannabis. This compound belongs to a different class of chemicals. These chemicals include nitrogenous compounds, amino acids, hydrocarbons, sugars, terpenes, and pure fatty acids. This compound contributes to the pharmacological and toxicological properties of cannabis.

Pharmacokinetics of Δ9-THC cannabis, which is highly lipophilic, is distributed between adipose tissue, liver, lungs, and spleen. Hydroxylation 9-THC produces 11-hydroxy-ps psychoactive compounds. 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and further oxidation cause 11-nor-9-carboxy-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) to be inactive. It quickly reaches high concentrations in the blood. About 90% of THC in the blood circulates in the plasma and rests in red blood cells. After inhalation, within a few seconds after the first injection, & Dgr; 9 -THC is detected in plasma, and the maximum plasma concentration is reached in 3 to 10 minutes. Biological availability; However, 9 -THC varies with inhalation depth, duration of swelling and respiratory retention. Given the suspicion that about 30% of THC will be destroyed by pyrolysis, the systemic bioavailability of THC is ~ 23-27% for heavy users and 10-14% for occasional users.

Metabolism and elimination of Δ9-THC

Δ9-THC is metabolized in the liver by hydroxylation and microsomal oxidation, which is catalyzed by the enzyme complex cytochrome P450 (CYP). It has been reported that the average plasma cleansing value for women is 11.8 ± 3 l / hr and for men 14.9 ± 3.7 l / hr. Most cannabis (80-90%) leaves the body within five days as hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites. In the urine, 18 cannabis acid metabolites can be detected68. Most of these metabolites form conjugates with glucuronic acid, which increases water solubility. Among significant metabolites (Δ9 -THC, 11-OH-THC, and THCCOOH), THCCOOH is the first glucuronide urine conjugate, while 11-OH-THC is the dominant form in the stool. Because Δ9-THC is very fat-soluble, this causes tubular reabsorption, resulting in low renal excretion from unchanged drugs. The half-life of urinary THCCOOH excretion is about 30 hours after seven days and 44 to 60 hours after twelve days of observation.

Interaction of cannabis with other drug abuse

The interaction of chronic cannabis with other drugs is still under investigation. There is no cross-tolerance between LSD and Δ9_THC. The reaction of marijuana with other drugs can be studied.

Basic reaction

Do not use this combination!

Sedatives (barbiturates) interact with CANNABIS

Marijuana can cause drowsiness and dizziness. Medication for sleepiness is called a narcotic. Taking cannabis with sedatives can cause excessive sleepiness.

Sedatives (CNS depressants) interact with CANNABIS

Marijuana can cause drowsiness and dizziness. Medication for sleepiness is called a narcotic. Taking cannabis with sedatives can cause excessive sleepiness.

Theophylline interacts with CANNABIS

Taking cannabis can reduce the effects of theophylline.

Medium interaction

Disulfiram (Antabuse) interacts with CANNABIS

Disulfiram (Antabus) can be associated with cannabis. Taking marijuana with disulfiram can cause arousal, insomnia, and irritability.

Fluoxetine (Prozac) interacts with CANNABIS

If you use marijuana with fluoxetine (Prozac), you may feel irritable, nervous, nervous, and upset. Doctors call it hypomania.

Small interaction

Be careful with this combination!

Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with CANNABIS

Marijuana can increase the effects of warfarin (Coumadin). Smoking while taking warfarin (Coumadin) can increase the risk of bruising and bleeding.

Adverse effects and safety

For oral intake:

Marijuana is dangerous if taken orally, long term and in large quantities. Consuming large amounts of marijuana can cause a disorder called cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). CHS causes severe and recurring nausea and vomiting. CHS is associated with severe complications that cause death.

When spraying in the mouth:

Specific cannabis extract sprays (Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals) are safe if used under the tongue. Side effects may include headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, nausea, and paranoid thinking.

By inhalation:

Marijuana is dangerous when smoking. Smoking cannabis can cause various respiratory problems, such as wheezing and coughing. Smoking cannabis can cause air-filled holes in the lungs. This air-filled cavity can cause symptoms such as chest pressure, pain and difficulty breathing. Smoking cannabis can also cause headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, nausea, and paranoid thinking. Smoking cannabis can also increase appetite, increase heart rate, change blood pressure and affect mental function. Marijuana smoking can also increase the risk of heart problems such as heart attacks and abnormal heartbeats.

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